Articles

Kaisarov Andrey

Kaisarov Andrey (1782–1813) – philologist, poet, publicist. He studied at the Moscow Noble Pension, then in Gottingen – at A. L. Schletzer, traveled much collecting materials for studying Russian antiquities. He was interested in natural sciences and spent several years in Edinburg, where he got Doctor degree in Medicine at the university, but he did not practice medicine. In 1801, he became a member of the Friends’ Literary Society, founded by A. I. Turgenev; its members were: the Turgenev brothers, Zhukovsky, Merzlyakov, Voeikov, etc. In the program of that group, united with the desire to create national literature, was a mixture of West European traditions with genuine Russian elements; they studied the past of Russian culture.
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Kandidov Boris

Kandidov Boris (1902–1953) – Soviet publicist, writer, propagandist. He was one of the founders of the Central Antireligious Museum in Moscow, in the Passion Monastery (1929). He was historian of Orthodoxy; in his works, mainly in publicist ones, he used Marxist literature and Lenin’s compositions about religion. He declared that Church was closely connected with autocracy, interpreted religion as an important tool of authorities which distracted attention of working people from their real needs and from their struggle for their rights and freedom. Some of his texts on the position of Russian Church during the WWI and Revolution are of certain interest
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Kantorovich Yakov

Kantorovich Yakov (1859–1925) – lawyer, legal historian. In 1879, he finished a gymnasium in Vilno, and in 1886, he graduated from the Legal Faculty of the St. Petersburg University. In the end of 1880-s, he entered the advocate service. In 1886-1905, he worked as Assistant of County Attorneys of the St. Petersburg Court Chamber. Since mid-1890-s, he actively wrote various texts. He published some research works on the history of law on his own account; in the early 1900-s, he founded his own publishing house and worked as Chief Editor of the magazines ‘Sudebnoe obozrenie’, ‘Vestnik senatskoy praktiki’, ‘Vestnir zakonodatel’stva’ on jurisprudence. In 1905-1917, he was County Attorney of the St. Petersburg Court Chamber and Juror at the St. Petersburg Commercial Court.
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Kapeliush Fedor

Kapeliush Fedor (1876–1945) – writer, journalist, translator, historian of religion, author of articles and booklets on political history. He translated works by K. Marx and K, Kautsky from German. In the Soviet religious history he left two inputs: his books ‘Religion of Early Capitalism’ and ‘Economics and Religion’, where he analyzed a concept of interrelations of economics and religion. According Marxist social and economical theory, he argued that in the epoch of early capitalism there was a specific religious ideology as a supplement to the economical basis. He criticized leading Western theoretical thinkers in the field of sociology of religion from Marxist positions – he knew their works quite well. Particularly, he was critical to the theory by M. Weber and W. Sombart, who wrote that Calvinism was an important term of shaping capitalism; K. offered to turn that theory out and pout economics in the basis and to explain ascetic views of Calvinists with the conditions of initial accumulation of capital and growing industry.
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Kapterev Nickolay

Kapterev Nickolay (1847–1917) – historian of the Church. He studied at the Zvenigorod Spiritual School, then at the Vifanskaya Spiritual Seminary (at the Saviour Bethany Monastery in Sergiev Posad), and then at the Moscow Spiritual Academy. In 1872, he graduated from the Historical Department and brilliantly defended his Master thesis ‘Laic Bishop’s Clerks in Old Rus’. He was invited to work at the Moscow Spiritual Academy, at the Chair of Old Civic History. There he got a position of Ass. Professor, then – Full Professor. In 1898, he became Honourary Professor. Besides his work at the Academy, K. Served as City Headman in Sergiev Posad from 1894 till 1902; in 1912-1917, he was a deputy of the IV State Duma from the Party of Progress. In 1910, he was elected as Correspondent Member of the Ac. of Sc.
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Antonine  (Kapustin Andrey Ivanovich)

Antonine (Kapustin Andrey Ivanovich) (1817–1894) – specialist in Byzantine studies, in ecclesiastic history, in Palestine studies, archeologist and collector, who made a big input into the Russian tradition of studying Near East, Minor Asia, and Greece, archimandrite In 1843, he got his Master degree in Theology at the Kievan Spiritual Academy; in 1845, being Bachelor, he got monk’s rank and kept his teaching and research work at the Academy. Since 1850, he was rector of the church at the Russian Embassy in Athens. In the course of works on the restoration of the church, he – for the first time – headed archeological excavations; then he got the rank of archimandrite and at the same time made his first publication ‘On the Ancient Christian Inscriptions in Athens’. He travelled to the Athos and studied old manuscripts and printed books there. In 1860-1865, he was rector of the church at the Russian Embassy in Constantinople; in 1865, he was transferred to Jerusalem, where – from1869 and till his death, he was head of the Russian Ecclesiastic Mission.
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Karamzin Nickolay

Karamzin Nickolay (1766–1826) – Russian historian, writer, translator, publisher. He studied at the Pension of I. M. Schaden, Prof. of the Moscow University. In 1781-1784, K. served at the Life Guardian Preobrazhensky Regiment. In 1789-1790, he travelled in Europe and happened to visit France during the French Revolution, started in 1789. His travel notes were a base of his ‘Letters by a Russian Traveller’ – the first text of such gender in Russia. Having returned to Russia, K. published ‘Moscow Magazine’ (Moskovskyi zhurnal), where he placed his own composition, as well as others, and so he shaped the literary style of Sentimentalism in Russian literature. In 1803, he was officially assigned to be Historiographer and almost stopped to write fiction texts.
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Kareev Nickolay

Kareev Nickolay (1850–1931) – historian, philosopher, sociologist. Since 1910 – Correspondent Member of the Ac. of Sc., since 1929 – Honourary Member of the Ac. of Sc. of the U.S.S.R. In 1873, he graduated from the Historical and Philological Faculty of the Moscow State University, where he past reading the courses by M. Kutorga and V. Gerie. In 1879, he defended his Master thesis ‘Peasants and the Peasants’ Issue in France in the Last Quarter of the Eighteenth Century’. In the same year, he started his teaching at the Warsaw University. Since 1885, he made lectures at the High Female Courses in St. Petersburg, at the St. Petersburg University, and the Aleksandrovsky Lyceum. After the Revolution 1917, K. was under constant surveillance becaue he was a member of the CD Party (Constitutional Democrats); he lost a chance to make lectures and to publish his works. On October 18, 1930, at the meeting of the Methodological Section of the Society of Marxist Historians, they harshly criticized his works.
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Karsavin Lev

Karsavin Lev (1882–1952) – historian, medievalist, historian of religious thought, philosopher. In 1906, he graduated from the St. Petersburg University, where his supervisor was I. M. Grevs. He made lectures at the Historical and Philological Institute, at the High Female Courses, and since 1912, also at the St. Petersburg University. Master thesis: ‘Essays of Religious Life in Italy in the Twelfth – Thirteenth Centuries’ (1913); Doctor thesis: ‘Basics of the Medieval Religious Mentality in the Twelfth – Thirteenth Centuries, Particularly in Italy’ (1916). In 1921, he was elected as Professor of the Social-Pedagogical and legal Departments of the Faculty of Social Studies of the Petrograd University.
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Kartashev Anton

Kartashev Anton (1875–1960) – social-political and ecclesiastical activist, theologian, specialist in Biblical studies, historian of Russian Church, publicist. He graduated from the Perm’ Spiritual Seminary (1894), and St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy (1899). He worked at the Chair of the History of Russian Church of the St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy (1899-1905). In 1905, the Synod demanded him to stop his participation in political and social activity or to quit the Academy. In 1905-1917, K. worked at the Public Library; in 1906-1917, he also made lectures at the High Female Courses. He was Chairman of the St. Petersburg Religious and Philosophical Society (1909), worked for the Novyi Put’ Publishing House; he was a member of the Masonic group ‘The Great East of the Peoples of Russia’ and a member of its High Council (1905-1917).
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