Articles

Adrianova-Peretz Varvara

Adrianova-Peretz Varvara (1888–1972) – philologist, medievalist, specialist in the Old Russian literature, folklore, and hagiography. Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (1943), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian S.S.R (1926), Doctor in Philology, Professor. In her works on the Old Russian didactic literature, she put a special attention to the problems of religious and philosophical anthropology. Studies by A-P in the sphere of the analyses of satirical and democratic literature of the seventeenth century are of great importance for understanding the traditions of Russian free thinking. She was a disciple of V.N. Perez (1870 – 1935), an outstanding researcher of Slavic folklore, philologist, Academician of the Academy of Sciences, repressed in 1934, died in exile in Saratov.
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Afanasiev Alexander

Afanasiev Alexander (1826–1871) – historian, specialist in folklore and literature, ethnographer, journalist. Member of the Society for the History and Antiquities of Russia (at the Moscow University), Member of the Russian Geographical Society, and of the Society of Amateurs of Russian Belles-lettres. During his studies at the Moscow University, he was under the influence of such representatives of the historical and legal school, as K. D. Kavelin, and F. I. Buslaev. After graduating the University, he worked as a manager of the Commission on publication of state charters and agreements by the Moscow Main Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He worked for the ‘Sovremennik’ magazine, and edited the ‘Bibliographicheskie Zapiski’.
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Aivazov Ivan

Aivazov Ivan (1872–1964) – orthodox missionary, publicist, researcher of ‘Russian sectarianism’. In 1898, after graduating from the Kazan Spiritual Academy, with a degree of Candidate in Theology, he served as diocesan missionary in the Tambov Region, then in the Ekaterinoslav, and the Kharkov Regions; among his duties, was a missionary work with sectarians , that gave him a chance to get necessary knowledge for teaching in 1912-1913 at the Moscow Spiritual Academy, at the Chair of the History and Denunciation of Russian Sectarianism. Since 1913, A. taught at the St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy. As a publicist, he wrote articles for such magazines, as ‘Tserkovny Vestnik’ (Ecclesiastic Bulletin), ‘Missionerskoe Obozrenie’ (Missionary Survey), ‘Vera ii Razum’ (Faith and Reason), ‘Golos Istiny’ (The Voice of Truth), ‘Missionersky Protivomusulmansky Sbornik’ (Missionary Anti-Moslem Collection), and ‘Dushepoleznoe Chtenie’ (Soulful Reading).
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Alekseev Vasily

Alekseev Vasily (1881–1951) – leading Russian specialist of the first half of the twentieth century in Chinese studies, translator, researcher in the field of Chinese traditional literature, folk art, and religion; member of the Russian Geographical, and Archeological Societies; Academician of the Ac. of Sc. of the U.S.S.R.. Corresponding Member of the State Bejing Library since 1929; Member of the National Geographical Society in Washington since 1946; member of the Union of Soviet Writers; Honorary Member of the American Oriental Society since 1947; collector of Chinese folk drawings and prints, calligraphy (including inscriptions and amulets), and printings from ancient stone slabs.
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Alexius Hieromonk (Vinogradov Aleksander)

Alexius Hieromonk (Vinogradov Aleksander) (1845–1919?) – Vinogradov was born in the family of a priest; graduated from the St. Petersburg Spiritual Seminary (1859-1865); worked there as an ‘assistant of the iconography supervisor’ (1865-1867); left his studies at the St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy on the first year because of financial reasons. From 1868 till 1874, taught iconography at the Yaroslavl Spiritual Seminary; in 1870 failed in his attempt to enter the Moscow Spiritual Academy. At the end, he has not received a systematic theological education. In 1871, Vinogradov – not breaking his course in the seminary – entered the Demidov’s Legal Lyceum in Yaroslavl; he graduated it in 1874 with the degree of Candidate in Law. Up to 1879, Vinogradov served as auditor of the St. Petersburg Military Regional Court, from which he was laid off – formally, in the process of its reorganization, but in fact because of his negligence in service.
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Altman Moses

Altman Moses (1896–1986) – philologist, translator, specialist in literature. The family moved to Baku in 1906. In 1914, A. finished the Second Bakinskaya Gymnasium with a silver medal (excellent in all disciplines, except Latin, and there were no Greek in the gymnasium). In the course of that learning he was enchanted with philology. In 1914, A. entered at the Physical and Mathematical Faculty of the Kievan St. Vladimir University, than he transferred to the Medical Faculty. In 1917-1919, A. was an active participant of fighting for Soviets in the Ukraine, took part in taking Odessa. In 1919-1920, he worked at Soviet newspapers in Chernigov, but did not enter the party in spite his admiration for the Soviets. In 1920, A. returned to Baku and entered the Historical and Philological Faculty of the Azerbaijan University.
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Amusin Joseph

Amusin Joseph (1910–1984) – historian, specialist in Hebrew research, especially in the Qumran texts. He learnt Hebrew in cheder; at the age of 15 he came to Leningrad, where worked as unskilled worker and learnt at economical school. At the same period he visited Hebrew library in Stremiannaya St. In 1928, A. was arrested as a member of youth Zionist group; a special collegium of the OGPU sent him to exile to the Tomsk Region (Siberia) for three years. In 1935, he entered the Historical Faculty of the Leningrad State University. In 1938, he was arrested again and sent to the Ussol’lag for eight years. In 1939, his case was reconsidered, and he returned to Leningrad and kept his studies at the university, passing through exams of two years externally, and working in parallel as secretary of Prof. S. Ya. Lurie. He graduated from the university in 1941.
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An-sky Semen (Rappoport Semen)

An-sky Semen (Rappoport Semen) (1863–1920) – writer, folklorist, public figure, specialist in popular religion. He studied in cheder. In the age of sixteen he was inspired with ideas of such cultural and social movement as Chaskal (enlightenment), shaped in the eighteenth century; its participants believed that Jews should escape their cultural and religious separation through laic education. In 1892, he had to emigrate. He worked as a secretary of one of ideologists of the ‘Narodniki’ revolutionary movement Petr Lavrov. In the emigration A. took part in shaping the Agrarian Socialist Leagye later included into the Socialist Revolutionary Party (S.R.).
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Andreev Nikolay

Andreev Nikolay (1892–1942) – specialist in folklore and literature. In 1918, he graduated from the Historical and Philological Faculty of the Kazan’ University. At the same period, he taught at the Kazan’ Teachers-Training Institute, and at the Moslem Teachers-Training Courses. From 1922 till the end of his life, he worked at the Leningrad Herzen Teachers-Training Institute, at the Chair of Russian Literature (Philological Faculty). A. was a member of the Folklore Commission of the Ac. of Sc. of the U.S.S.R.; since late 1920-s, he has participated in the work of the Folktales Commission of the Ethnographic Department of the Russian Geographical Society; and since 1930-s, he has got a position of the Head of the Folklore Group at the State Institute of Speaking Culture. A. put a special attention to studying of fairy-tales and legends, offered to build a general catalogue of fairy-tales plots. He insisted at the creating summarizing research on the general folklore history.
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Anichkov Dmitry

Anichkov Dmitry (1733–1788) – Russian enlightener, philosopher, logician, and mathematician; Associate Prof. (1771), Full Prof. Of the Chair of Philosophy (logics, metaphysics, moral philisophy) (1777-1788) at the philosophical Faculty of the Moscow University. He gained fame for his thesis ‘Reasoning from natural theology on the origin and developing of the natural veneration of God’ (1769), which induced protests from the most part of professors of the university Conference and from spiritual authorities. In the reworked form it was submitted for defense under a new title: ‘Philosophical consideration on the origin and developing of the natural veneration of God at various, especially ignorant peoples’; A. analyzed problems of the origin of religion in the context of the newest theory – the concept of the ‘natural’ religion.
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