Kovalev Sergey (1886–1960) – historian of Classical society.

In 1908, he enrolled at the Physical and Mathematical Faculty of the St. Petersburg University. Two years later, he transferred at the Historical and Philological Faculty. In 1915, he went to the military service, not graduating from the university; in 1919-1938, he served at the red Army, and was involved into political propaganda. In 1922, staying at the military service, he graduated from the Petrograd University. In 1920, at the foundation of the Tolmachev Red Army University (later – Lenin Military-Political Academy) he became Dean, and then Rector; at the Military-Political Academy he worked till 1938, in parallel with other activities. In 1921, he became Head of the Propagandist Department of the Political Management Department of the Military District of the Red Army. In 1924-1956, he made lectures at the Herzen State Teachers-Training Institute; in 1930-1937, he was Head of the Sector of the History of Ancient World at the State Academy of the History of Material Culture of the Ac. of Sc. of the U.S.S.R.; in 1938-1950 – Senior researcher of the Leningrad Branch of the Institute of History of the Ac. of Sc. of the U.S.S.R.; in 1934-1958 – Head of the Chair of the History of Ancient World at the Historical Faculty of the Leningrad State University; in 1956-1960 – Director of Museum of the History of Religion of the Ac. of Sc. of the U.S.S.R. In 1938, on the recommendation of the Leningrad State University, he got the Doctor degree in History without defending the thesis.

He wrote on the issues of the social and economical history of Classical World on the base of Marxist theory of the class struggle as the moving factor of historical development. He was the author of the first Soviet manuals on the history of the Ancient World. At the last years of his life, he was interested in the history of Early Christianity, interpreting it as a result of social conflicts in the Roman Empire; he wrote some works on the class meaning of Christianity and the mythological origin of Jesus Christ.