Butinova (Dolgonosova) Maria (1920—2007) – ethnographer, historian of religion.
In 1938, she entered the Chair of Ethnography of the Leningrad State University. In February 1942, she was evacuated to Saratov together with the University. In 1942—1945, she studied at the post-graduate courses of the Leningrad State University. In 1945—1952, she taught at the Chair of Ethnography (in the frames of the Oriental Faculty of the Leningrad State University till 1949, and in the frames of the Historical Faculty in 1949—1952). In 1951, she took part in the organization of the constant exhibition of the Department ‘Peoples of Australia and Oceania’ of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography.
In 1952—1991, she works as researcher of the Museum for the History of Religion and Atheism of the Ac. of Sc. of the U.S.S.R. (the State Museum for the History of Religion and Atheism): in 1953—1962 — research secretary of the Museum, in 1968-1983 — Head of the Department ‘The Origin of Religion’.
Candidate thesis “The Doctrine of E. Taylor on the пережитках’ (Institute of Ethnography of the Ac. of Sc. of the U.S.S.R., 1948); in 1975 — Doctor thesis ‘Missionary Work and Colonialism (on the Materials of the peoples of Oceania)’ (1975).
In the State Museum for the History of Religion she took part in the organization of constant exhibitions ‘Natural Studies and Religion’, ‘Science and Religion’, ‘Religion of the Primordial Society’, ‘The Origin and the Early Forms of Religion’, and supervised a number of temporary exhibitions.
She studied problems of the history and ethnography of the peoples of Australia and Oceania, the history of the missionary work in that region; she wrote articles on various problems of museum work, and atheistic upbringing.
She was the wife of ethnographer, specialist in the culture of the peoples of Australia and Oceania N.А.Butinov.