This book was written by Russian ethnographer and researcher of the traditional religious beliefs of the peoples of Siberia. For the first time in the domestic human studies, he raised the question of the ethnography of childhood as a special field of studies with specific characteristic features and separate from the life of adults. According to the researcher, children's ethnography cannot be regarded as “a piece of adult ethnography… children perceive the artistic image differently, their ideas about the world are not identical with those of adults”. In the life of every generation of children, one can observe a “triune process’ inherent in the life of every nation and state: daily life of children under 7 years old with its inherent “signs of initial simplicity”; daily life from 7 till 12 years old, characterized with the greatest originality and brightness; daily life after 12 years old, when a person begins to “judge for real” and there is no more room for play in his life. V. emphasized: phenomena from the field of children's ethnography should be studied not only in their finished and established forms. No less important is the analysis of “the process of a person's perception of cultural accumulations made by his predecessor, the process of a new member of the children's environment entering the life and environment, the process of mastering the experience of a natural children's collective and accumulating their own experience”. The author pays a special attention to the research methodology. He points out that “in order to collect materials covering various aspects of children's life, one should develop or adopt a coherent and harmonious view of the people's way of life, adopt or develop one or another concept of ‘children's ethnography’ that would provide an opportunity to work with the necessary confidence and with sufficient understanding of every single moment”. V.'s concept of ‘children ethnography’ included a year-round review of children's life (children's folk calendar), a review of children's art, a study of children's verbal creativity (folklore), and forms of manifestation of children's social life, an analysis of children's games, toys, and children's vocabulary peculiarities. The research is based on such methods as polling and observation.