‘Buddhism’ by Soviet specialist in religious and Buddhist studies A.N. Kochetov was published twice; the author recommended it as a study on the ideology of one of three world religions. The concept of the ideology of Buddhism according to K. is a system of religious, social, and aesthetic views oriented at the way of salvation in the extraterrestrial world. Opposite to some other scholars, the author purposefully refused to distinguish Buddhism from other religious systems, or to speak about its ‘atheism’. The author saw the significance of his work in several points. First of all, his description of the main aspects of the ideology of Buddhism was designed to deepen the understanding of the role of that religion in the life of Asian peoples at the moment, when the destruction of the world colonial system in the Asian Region led to political and economical independence, active cultural development, and shaping of national identities. Besides, on his opinion, it was necessary to know the ideology of Buddhism for the sake of understanding how some Buddhist concepts were used in the struggle for national independence or against it, i.e. the Buddhist discourse was “an instrument of the anti-Communist propaganda”. The author set a task to define the very concept of Buddhism, to describe the conditions of its shaping and dissemination, its social role, particularly in the epoch of the destruction of the colonial system of imperialism, and to give readers some basic knowledge on the philosophic doctrine of Buddhism, specifics of its cult, the significance of that religion in the contemporary political life of those countries, where it was enrooted.